Sones del maíz. Música ritual en la Huasteca potosina
Gonzalo Camacho

Entre los nahuas de la región Huasteca el Son adquiere diferentes expresiones que se articulan de manera importante a los ciclos festivos. En la zona de la Huasteca potosina, se toca un género musical denominado Canario , Sones de Costumbre o Xochicuicatl (Cantos de flor). La dotación instrumental encargada de ejecutar esta música es el trío huasteco, integrado por violín, jarana huasteca y huapanguera. El Canario se interpreta durante el ritual de Tlamanes , ceremonia agrícola de cosecha del maíz. A partir de un estudio de caso realizado en la comunidad de Chilocuil, esta ponencia muestra los procesos de significación asociados a los Canarios, mediante el análisis de su articulación con el ritual de Tlamanes y la cosmovisión de los nahuas de la Huasteca.

Lucha Reyes: The (Mis)adventures of La Reina del Mariachi
Sergio de la Mora

Born Maria de la Luz Flores Aceves in Guadalajara, Jalisco in 1906, Lucha Reyes transformed Mexican ranchera music on an international scale. She performed and traveled with mariachis and trios from Mexico City to Los Angeles to Europe. Delivering innovative gestures to the music's style and performativity, Reyes would create a sonic imprint for generations of ranchera singers to come. Most often recognized for the sexual agency and unique lyrical interpretation encompassed in her rendition of rancheras, Reyes embodied modes of desire, pain, and tragedy that transcended heteronormative sexual economies of the time. Reyes lived physically and psychologically, in both her work and in her personal life, the excessive contradictions of Mexican modernity as it affected "liberated women" and queer individuals.

With particular attention to the transnational-scapes of Mexican ranchera music and the comedia ranchera genre, this paper examines how Los Angeles and Mexico City shaped the career of 1920s-1940s Mexican ranchera performer Lucha Reyes. This historical recovery project more broadly documents how Mexican radio and film as well as cultural producers created a transnational circuit for the circulation of Mexican popular culture and for the creation of a greater Mexican national consciousness. My paper addresses how Reyes and other queer artists shaped Mexican cultural nationalism and how their cultural legacies are being consumed, re-interpreted and appropriated today.

Las Grandes: Engendering Ranchera Female Performance
Cándida Jáquez

[abstract soon available]

María Cumbé baila La Negra : pasos para tocar una pareja de sones de ascendencia afro en México
Álvaro Ochoa Serrano

The impact of African culture on traditional, and by extension, modern Mexican culture has often been unrecognized, unappreciated and often simply denied. And yet sometimes this African presence is best hidden when it is more visible. By collating archival information from the 17 th and 18 th centuries on the settling of Africans and their descendants in Western Mexico (Occidente) with the changing lyrics of some of the better known sones of Michoacán and Jalisco, I show that overt references in the lyrics to African traits in people, music and customs can be explained by the presence of African populations in that region. Moreover, I suggest that some of the iconic symbols of Mexican culture, such as the charro and the china poblana , may have had African origins as well.

Transnational Dialogues: Intercambios Jarocha/os y Chicana/os
Russell Rodríguez

Within the past 20 years a fruitful dialogue has developed between musicians of the Jarocho communities in Veracruz and musicians of Chicano communities in California, specifically around the form of the son jarocho. This relationship has also flourished from a mutual respect for each other's identities and talents, and from the recognition of similar social and political conditions: specifically being musical communities marginalized from the recording industries as well as being marginalized communities within their respective nations. Utilizing a method of "practicing and creating" music style, form, and sonoric textures, a wonderful display of production, diffusion, and sharing between these two communities has occurred. This is a shift of a more common method of "preservation and promotion," of "traditional" music, which has restrained a Chicano presence within the practice Mexican cultural expressions. In utilizing the former method Jarocha/os and Chicana/os collectively contribute to new emerging voices in traditional and contemporary musical forms.

La lírica de los sones en México. Algunas consideraciones útiles para su comprensión y estudio
Rosa Virginia Sánchez

Debido a la naturaleza autónoma de las coplas, medio expresivo de los sones, y a su compleja relación con la música, ha sido imposible, hasta la fecha, desarrollar un estudio de la literatura de este género dentro del contexto que le da sentido y del cual es inseparable: la música. Por un lado, existen importantes antologías de coplas recogidas como un elemento aislado, y cuya organización y estudio se basa en la relación de las coplas con ellas mismas; por el otro, contamos con algunos trabajos encaminados a elaborar una caracterización del son en general en los que la letra es un elemento más entre muchos otros, sin considerar una serie de rasgos fundamentales que nos muestran una clara distinción entre los sones de las diferentes regiones, características que incluso se llegan a revelar en contra de las generalizaciones hechas hasta ahora. Lo que propongo mostrar en esta ponencia es la existencia de una serie de rasgos literarios que nos ayudarán a comprender los diferentes niveles de relación que llegan a establecerse entre dos mundos -letra y música- aparentemente disociados en este género lírico; así mismo, se pretende mostrar la necesidad de llevar a cabo un análisis de las coplas dentro del contexto de los sones en que se cantan, como medio eficaz para entender la realidad lírica a partir de las maneras de percepción, elaboración y transmisión de personas concretas, quienes son las que determinan la dinámica de las coplas en relación a la música que les pertenece. Este tipo de aproximación, que deberá necesariamente considerar los rasgos literarios particulares de las diversas variantes regionales del son, es el que nos permitirá avanzar en el conocimiento de este género lírico tan importante en nuestra cultura popular, y del cual todavía queda mucho por decir.

Solamente la mano de Dios podrá separarnos: preliminary notes for the untold history of the hold of the Mexican ranchera in Colombian popular culture
Carolina Santamaría

Between the 1930s and 1950s, the Mexican cultural industry had a very strong impact in several Latin American countries. Colombian society welcomed an avalanche of Mexican feature films, movie stars, and music genres, which had to compete fiercely for the control of the local cultural market with similar products brought from Argentina, Cuba, and the United States. In spite of ranchera music's ubiquitous presence in Colombian popular culture (especially notorious in telenovelas since the 1980s) no systematic study has yet traced back the roots of that special musical relationship between Mexico and Colombia. This paper presents some data regarding ranchera's early introduction through movies and radio broadcast in Bogotá and Medellín, analyzing the social status assigned to this music and other foreign genres in vogue during the mid-century. Such considerations will help to explain the endurance of ranchera's popularity in the Andean region's rural areas, and the renewed prominence reached by Mariachi music in Bogotá nowadays.

'Hey, That's African Music!': In Search of the 'African' in the Son Jarocho
Daniel Sheehy

Primed by Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán's groundbreaking work beginning in the late 1940s, the past quarter century has seen an explosion of scholarly attention to Mexico's "Tercera Raíz," its African mestizo heritage. Musician-scholar Antonio García de León estimates that more than 2,000 books and articles have been written on the topic during this period. The son mexicano has been a thread of this cultural conversation, with special attention given to the son jarocho of southern Veracruz, an area in which people of African descent have made their home since the sixteenth century.

This short presentation follows the personal journey from a musician/ethnomusicologist perspective, seeking "the African" in the style of the traditional son jarocho . I speculate that certain baseline sub-Saharan African organizing musical principles are fundamental to the basic functioning of the traditional son jarocho , in contradistinction to the organizing principles of certain other prominent regional son types and to the creations of pseudo-folk urban songwriters of the mid-twentieth century. The story is one of Afro-mestizo musical persistence in the ongoing give and take of an increasingly globalized world.